Custom Antibodies


"We have worked with NeoClone a number of times over the last few years and have been very pleased with both their commitment and follow through."

Ian Garthwaite, Head of Research and Development, Tyrian Diagnostics

Camelid VHH Antibody Services

NeoClone is fast becoming a leader in the single domain antibody library field. We offer a wide range of unique services, including construction of immunized single domain antibody libraries using our llamas, bio-panning of naïve or immunized single domain antibody libraries and large scale production of single domain antibodies (SdAb).

NeoClone's services include the generation and production of target-specific SdAb from either a naïve llama (camelid) VHH library or a custom immunized llama antibody phage display library. Following serial rounds of bio-panning against your target of interest, we use a proprietary selection procedure to identify the phage containing the target-specific VHH binding domain. The individual VHH antibody phage display genes that recognize your target are subcloned to provide multiple target-specific VHH antibodies in order to choose those with the highest affinity. From these isolated genes, the recombinant SdAb proteins are expressed and purified in vitro. Each recombinant VHH SdAb can be characterized and qualified for functionality in assays of your choice, including western blot, ELISA, immunoprecipitation, flow cytometry or immunohistochemistry.

Llama VHH (SdAb) background

The llama is a member of the camelidae family, which also includes alpacas and camels. In additional to conventional IgG, these animals produce subclasses IgG2 and IgG3, functional single chained antibodies that are capable of antigen binding. Referred to as VHH antibodies, these antibodies consist of only two heavy chains connected by several disulphide bonds in the hinge region. They lack the light chains and functional CH1 and CH4 domains. These heavy chain antibodies are being used to develop single domain antibodies. The single domain nature of these antibodies provide unique advantages which set them apart for research, diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Some of these advantages include:

  • stability at high temperatures and pH
  • VHHs can recognize antigenic sites that are normally not recognized by conventional antibodies
  • their small molecular size helps with rapid tissue penetration and labeling applications, including crossing the blood-brain barrier
  • cheaper alternative for large scale production

A major roadblock to the development of immunotherapy has been the size of conventional antibodies; past a critical point the antibody is often unable to reach its target. The camelid heavy chain antibodies present advantages over common antibodies in the design, production, and application of clinically valuable reagents.

Screening our Naïve Llama VHH Library

NeoClone's naïve camelid phage display single domain antibody library was developed from the PBMC of numerous llamas in order to broaden the diversity of the VHH genes generated in their combined immune responses. We can screen this library for your target quickly and move forward into developing a robust VHH antibody for you.

Custom Llama VHH Library Creation

We have upgraded our custom antibody capabilities to include the construction of immunized llama single domain antibody libraries that are based on phage display technology. In comparison with naïve libraries, immunized libraries usually produce a much more diverse panel of antibodies, and of even greater affinity, to your specific target of interest.

We are adept at cloning the single domain antibody repertoire from PBMC of immunized llamas into our phage display vectors. By reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction, a library of single domain antibodies containing 10-100 million clones can be produced. This library will be enriched for your target, increasing the chances of getting just the right clone for your research, diagnostic or therapeutic need.

If you would like additional information or are interested in beginning a camelid VHH antibody project with us, please call us at (608) 260-8190 or send us an email at